Referencing the Work of Others
- Grade 6: Include direct quotes and a bibliography (MLA/APA)
- Grade 7: Include direct quotes and a bibliography (MLA/APA)
- Grade 8: Students document reference sources with direct quotes, paraphrase with citations and a bibliography (MLA/APA)
- Grade 9: Use MLA/APA format for documentation in the text, footnotes and bibliographies, depending on the requirement of the task
- Grade 10: Use MLA/APA format for documentation in the text, footnotes and bibliographies, depending on the requirement of the task
- Grades 11 and 12: Use MLA/APA format for documentation in the text, footnotes and bibliographies, depending on the requirement of the task
For more information:
- MLA: https://style.mla.org
- APA: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx
- University of Pittsburgh http://pitt.libguides.com/c.php?g=12108&p=64729
- Dawson College https://www.dawsoncollege.qc.ca/academic-skills-centre/apa-mla-style-sheets/
Proper citation is a key element in academic scholarship and intellectual exchange. When we cite we:
• show respect for the work of others
• help a reader to distinguish our work from the work of others who have contributed to our work
• give the reader the opportunity to check the validity of our use of other people’s work
• give the reader the opportunity to follow up our references, out of interest
• show and receive proper credit for our research process
• demonstrate that we are able to use reliable sources and critically assess them to support our work
• establish the credibility and authority of our knowledge and ideas
• demonstrate that we are able to draw our own conclusions
• share the blame (if we get it wrong).
What to cite:
As creators/authors, we are expected to acknowledge any materials or ideas that are not ours and that have been used in any way, such as quotation, paraphrase or summary. The term “materials” means written, oral or electronic products, and may include the following.
Basic and common knowledge within a field or subject does not need to be acknowledged. However, if we are in doubt whether the source material is common knowledge or not, we should cite!
When to Cite:
When we acknowledge the use of materials or ideas that are not ours, the reader must be able to clearly distinguish between our own words, illustrations, findings and ideas and the words and work of other creators.
- In written work, we should cite in the text where we have used an external source. The inclusion of a reference in a bibliography (works cited/list of references) at the end of the paper is not enough.
- In presentations we can provide our audience with a handout of our references, or list our sources on the final slide(s).
- During an oral presentation, we can acknowledge the sources we are by using phrases, for example, “As Gandhi put it …” or “According to …”. We can show a direct quotation by saying “Quote …Unquote” or by signalling with “rabbit’s ears” or “air quotes”.
- We can include references or acknowledgements of other people’s work in the final credits of a film.
- A piece of music can be accompanied by programme notes indicating influences and direct sources.
- Art on display can be labelled or captioned.
How to cite:
Grades 6 & 7 Video
These clips explain how to use simple in-text citation and show why we have bibliographies and how to cite.
Grade 8 Videos
These clips run through the key points of how to do in-text citation, in-text block quotations and how to put together a ‘Works Cited’ page.
Grades 9 & 10 Videos
These clips show how to formally set out a project paper, how to do in text block quotations and how to set out a bibliography – or ‘Works Cited’ page